In the tropics because of high temperature, heavy rainfall and the susceptibility of goats-to parasitism, the most practical goat houses are those which are raised above the ground level, are well ventilated, and have long eaves to prevent heavy rain showers to splash in from the sides. The floor must be strong (wooden strips with small slits in between) and the roof material should provide effective insulation from the solar radiation. The roofing material would be made of bamboo or tree leaves or earthen tiles which are cheap and practical. Provision must be made for collection of dung and urine periodically.
Goat farm design plays an important role in the overall production and health of your goats. A good designed goat farm with all types of facilities, ensures higher production, maximum profit and good health for goats. A good goat farm design must have to include a suitable house or shelter, pasture, numerous mobile shelter for taking rest, sufficient grazing place, free from noise or sound, properly fenced, good source of fresh and clean water and some other necessary facilities. In general a house with high-roof shed covered with fire-proof materials has been found as the best for goats. And this system is much cooler than the the conventional goat housing system made by using reeds, hay thatches, bamboo poles and asbestos sheet. Make the shed in east-west direction. Houses made in this system ensures the maximum flow of fresh air, light and cooler environment inside the house. This system works best for hot-arid conditions.
The size and width of shelter or house depends on the goat breeds and their size. But an average sized shelter of five to six meters is considered as OK. But the length of the shelter depends on the strength of the herd or flock. An adult goat need about 40-50 square feet of area for running passage and about 16-17 square feet of area under the shed according to the strength of breed you can construct a shed. The height of the house depends on the weather condition of your farm location. The height of the shelter should be between 3 to 5 meters in the hot regions. And a house less than this height result poor ventilation. Shelter with proper height also helps to control the temperature inside the house. The roof of the shelter can be found in both flat and ‘A’ shaped. The ‘A’ shaped shelter is very suitable and has many advantages than flat shaped roof. Flat shaped shelter is perfect in cold areas. But the ‘A’ shaped houses are suitable for all areas. Especially for hot areas. ‘A’ shaped roof helps to prevent direct solar radiation by casting its shadow. It also helps in cutting down heat gain from the roof of the house.
Fire-proof tar-coated roofing materials has been found as most effective, among all the roofing materials. Always try to keep the places surrounding your farm as green as possible for avoiding heating up of the shed for good ventilation. It also help to protect the animals from the direct hit of hot winds. Cover the eastern and western sides of the shades for up to a meter height. Make the roof and walls white colored outside and colored inside. By painting the side walls with white color outside, it will help to reduce the surface temperature inside by 12 to 22 degree centigrade. Compared to unpainted walls in places where temperature remain above 37 degree centigrade. This is absolutely a great idea for keeping your farm area cool. For commercial goat farming, an area with 1 acre land (for producing green feeds) will be sufficient enough for raising about 100 goats (you need to have proper irrigation system and choose fast growing grass for producing feeds throughout the year).